Iraq vs. Coalition Forces

August 2nd, 1990-February 28th, 1991

- Authorized by the United Nations but led by the United States

- Wanted to return Kuwait to the control of the Emir Of Kuwait

- Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing their oil causing an Iraq invasion on Kuwait

- Shortly after Iraq's invasion, President George H. W. Bush deploys U.S army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard into Saudi Arabia

- This was called operation Desert Shield that began on January 17th, 1991


Operation Desert Shield


-Iraqi leader, Saddam Hussein became frustrated when fellow Arab Gulf States refused to go along with his plan to raise the price of oil while cutting the production

-This left him frustrated and was led to believe that his fellow brother states were conspiring against him

-After weeks of massing troops along the Iraqi-Kuwait border and accusing Kuwait of various crimes, he sends in seven Army divisions into Kuwait

-The United States thought of this as a threat to their vital interest, so President George H. W. Bush ordered warplanes and armed forces into Saudi Arabia

-As Hussein ordered his troops to mass along the Saudi Arabian border, Operation Desert Shield was underway, PROTECT SAUDI ARABIA


Battle Of Khafji

January 29th-February 1st 1991


-Forces from Iraq's 5th Mechanized Division and 3d Armored Division were moving south to cross the border near a deserted Saudi town named Khafji

-The main phase of the Battle of Khafji lasted less than 48 hours, but it marked a turning point in the debate over the ability of airpower to dominate enemy maneuver forces

-The significance of Khafji was it was overshadowed during the war, but generals, Michael J. Dugan, Merrill A. McPeak, and Ronald R. Fogleman recognized Khafi as a marker of airpower's increasing ability to meld sensors and advanced weapons under central control to gain the advantage over the enemy over on the ground

Battle Of Medina Ridge

February 27th, 1991


-A decisive tank battle

-It was between the U.S 1st Armored Division and the 2nd Brigade of the Iraqi Republican Guard Medina Luminous Division outside of Basra

- The battle was about two hours long and was the biggest tank battle in the Gulf War as well as the biggest tank battle in United States history

- Iraqi resistance made it hard for United States troops to advance

-The Iraqi forces were well-deployed such that they could not be seen by American forces advancing until after they had cleared the top of the ridgeline

-The United States Army came out victorious



Operation Red Storm 

February 1991

- Iraqis thought that the Allies were preparing Wadi Al-Batin for the main attack

-The desired effect was that the Iraqis would think that the main coalition ground attack would come up the Wadi Al Batin

-This was a natural invasion route

-On February 16, 1991, US 1st Cavalry Division's artillery started firing against Iraqi targets inside the Wadi Al-Batin

-This misdirection allowed the coalition forces to perform the famous "hail Mary" to the West as the Iraqis focused on the Wadi